Accordingly, in many countries, representatives of the accounting profession confirm their professional competence and training by passing certification (certification) to obtain a generally recognized qualification – professional (public, certified, juror) accountant. For example, in the United States, candidates may qualify for CMA (Certified Management Accountant) or CPAs (Certified Public Accountants) by going through a long journey of preparation, passing several exams and meeting the established requirements for education and professional qualifications. To become a professional accountant, candidates must meet fairly strict, almost similar in all civilized countries of the world, the requirements.
In many countries, a candidate is required to have a higher education degree in passing certification exams and impeccable reputation. And in Germany, in addition to this, the candidates take the oath before the beginning of their professional activity in the following form: “I swear to God, Almighty and Omniscient, that I will fulfill the responsibility of an accountant-auditor with full responsibility and conscientiousness, carefully protect confidentiality and honestly and objectively draw up audit certificates (financial statements) and opinions on them. God help me! ”1. and objectively draw up audit reports (financial statements) and opinions on them. God help me! ”1. and objectively draw up audit reports (financial statements) and opinions on them. God help me! ”1.
At the international level, since 1973, an international professional association of accountants has been operating – the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC-IFAC), in which the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) acts as an autonomy. This committee develops and distributes financial reporting standards. One of the activities of this committee is the development of ethical requirements and rules of conduct for professional accountants.
Professional ethics are available to workers in all sectors of the economy. These are specific requirements and principles in the behavior of professional accountants. The set of rules, recommendations and standards of ethics of professional accountants is reflected in the Code of Ethics, developed by the International Federation of Accountants. The Code establishes standards of conduct for professional accountants and sets out the basic principles that should be followed by professional accountants in order to achieve common goals.
According to the Code of Ethics of Professional Accountants, members of the profession must perform their work in accordance with the standards of professionalism, qualitatively, promptly and effectively. At the same time it is necessary to observe the following requirements: reliability, professionalism, quality of services and trust. In addition, there are fundamental principles that are the basis of the professionalism of accountants: decency, objectivity, professional competence, confidentiality, professional conduct and technical standards.
At present, in connection with the accounting scandals and bankruptcies in the United States at the beginning of the decade related to the falsification of financial reports, there is an urgent need to pay attention to the issues of professional ethics.